According to his type, they began to build lighthouses in other ports of the empire.
Researchers note that a person loses his individuality, and with it the need for spiritual self-improvement through culture. Due to the perfect system of division of labor, when only one production and professional function is honed, the individual becomes a part of the machine, and culture – the entertainment industry.
The industrialization of culture has become one of the laws of our century. The consequences of this process are spiritually contradictory: on the one hand, the developed technique of reproduction and reproduction makes art accessible to a wide audience, on the other – the general availability of works of art turns them into a household item, devalues. Lightness and simplicity of perception makes unnecessary internal preparation for communication with art, and this sharply reduces its positive impact on personal development.
"Mass" culture is spreading in the society, the synonyms of which are: "popular culture", "entertainment industry", "commercial culture", etc. In contrast to the high, elite culture, which has always been focused on the intellectual, thinking public, mass culture is consciously focused on the "average" level of mass consumers. The main channel for the spread of mass culture is modern means of communication technology (printing, press, radio, television, cinema, video and sound recording). Masculinity is created by specialists (managers, writers, directors, screenwriters, composers, singers, actors, etc.) not always at a professional level, often the quality of their works is determined by only one criterion – commercial success. In the second half of the twentieth century. The United States of America became the "legislator of fashion" in mass culture, concentrating powerful financial and technical resources in the field of pop culture.
Many modern culturologists even use the term "Americanization of culture" to refer to the process of spreading mass culture. On the dangers of the charms of American mass culture, which has little to do with the work of such prominent figures of world culture as writers William Faulkner (1897-1962), Ernest Hemingway (1899-1961) or actor, film director and screenwriter Charles Spencer Chaplin 1889-1977), say the British and French, Germans and Japanese, representatives of other European and non-European cultures. This problem is exacerbated in our country as well, because there can be nothing worse for culture than the loss of its national identity.
These are just some of the negative processes that characterize the state of culture of the twentieth century. But against the background of the crisis, another trend is emerging, which, according to many philosophers and culturologists, should become the leading one in the XXI century – is the return of humanity to the "womb" of culture, its spiritual recovery. The realization that humanity can be saved from self-destruction only by turning to culture, its millennial wisdom and beauty, is already reaching the general public. This, of course, was reflected in the artistic culture. Among the features of artistic culture of the twentieth century are the following:
the absence of a dominant style and, accordingly, the presence of many currents, especially in painting and music; interpretation of reality from the standpoint of certain philosophical ideas (Marxism, Freudianism, existentialism); direct connection of artistic creativity with global problems of world politics, active opposition of the artistic intelligentsia to militarism, fascism, totalitarianism, dehumanization of life, etc.; the split between popular and elite art; intensive renewal of means of expression, artistic language in literature, painting, music interesting narrative essay topics, theater; huge intensity and dynamism of social life, as a result of which almost every decade has its "face", including in artistic culture, etc.
Actual problems that are reflected in art culture are the problems of "culture and power", "culture and market", protection of culture. The most painful problem is the crisis of spirituality.
And yet the XX century. is a holistic artistic epoch in which one’s culture-forming idea can be traced. This is the idea of humanism, which, in art and literature, is manifested not only in the global interest in the human person, viewed from a variety of perspectives, but also, paradoxically at first glance, in the disappearance of man from the artist’s field of vision. On the one hand, the desire to humanize human existence and creativity, on the other – the hypertrophy of forms, the growing role of reception on such a scale when the reception of the tool becomes an end in itself. The organic image was replaced by outright constructivism, the geometry of style, which displaced man from the content.
List of references
1. Ukrainian and foreign culture / Ed. Trump. – K., 2000.
2. History of world culture. – K., 1998.
The cultural phenomenon of Hellenism: cosmopolitanism and individualism
Hellenistic civilization, which lasted almost 300 years, called a new stage of development of material and spiritual culture, forms of political organization and social relations of the peoples of the Mediterranean, Asia Minor and surrounding regions, united into one state due to the campaigns of A. Macedonian (356 – 323 BC)
Alexander and his followers aimed not to conquer and destroy the conquered peoples, but to merge them with the Greeks into one harmonious whole, overcoming differences between the Greeks and the barbarians (not the Greeks). Hellenistic culture acquired new cosmopolitan features, without borders, nations and states. A feature of the Hellenistic era was the synthesis of Greek and Oriental cultures.
Their interaction determined the further cultural and historical destinies of certain regions of the Hellenistic world, including European civilization. However, Greek culture remained dominant in this tandem. The very concept of "Hellenism" refers to the victory of Greek culture in the East. However, the Hellenistic culture, despite its integrity and the presence of common features, was not uniform: in each region it had a local specificity.
During the Hellenistic period, for the first time, the idea of a world empire under the leadership of a charismatic leader came to Europe from Asia and was largely realized in practice. Hellenism was also characterized by a growing process of erosion of ethnic homogeneity, the destruction of polis, religious isolation. Under these conditions, the average citizen withdraws from political affairs, giving way to the top of society, but does not turn into a gray faceless mass, and expresses his individuality through immersion in the inner world. Hellenism is an era of awakened individualism, which is manifested in the study of problems of happiness, ethics, morality.
The most important impetus for scientific, technical and cultural progress was the exchange of experience and knowledge between the local population and the Greek-Macedonians. In the craft, this manifested itself in mass production, improvement of the loom, expansion of the range of clothing and footwear. New varieties of papyrus appeared in Egypt, and in Pergamum from the II century. B.C. – parchment (non-tanned leather made from the skin of cattle or sheep skin, which was used as a writing material). Embossed ceramics with a metallic tinge, stylized as expensive metal utensils, have been widely developed. In the jewelry business, the technique of cloisonne enamel and amalgamation (amalgam – an alloy of mercury with metal; used in gilding, in the manufacture of mirrors, non-ferrous metallurgy). The production of mosaic, two-color, engraved and gilded glass began in the glass business. But such products were extremely expensive.
Significant progress has been made in shipbuilding, expanding the network of shipbuilding and docks, arranging harbors, and new lighthouses. One of the seven wonders of the world was the Faros lighthouse, created by the architect Sostratus of Cnidus near Alexandria around 300 BC. According to his type, they began to build lighthouses in other ports of the empire.
The Hellenistic era was marked by shifts in urban planning. During the reign of Alexander the Great, about 70 cities emerged, the most developed of which were Alexandria in Egypt, Antioch on the Orontes, Seleucia on the Tigris, Pergamum, and so on.
Hellenistic cities had a rectangular layout. The streets were wider than in the ancient Greek cities. According to Srabon, Alexandria "was crossed by streets convenient for riding and on chariots, and two wide avenues more than 30 m wide, which divided the city in half at right angles." Cities were provided with water supply and sewerage, high-rise buildings and fortifications were built for the poor. In general, the Hellenistic cities were ahead of the level of urban development of the time of Louis XV in terms of cleanliness and convenience.
During the Hellenistic era, the development of architecture, painting and plastic arts continued. Prominent monuments of Hellenism were the Temple of Artemis in Ephesus, built on the site of the burned Herostatus, the Temple of Apollo near Miletus, Olympia, which began two rows of columns around the rectangular structure of the temple, the temple-tomb of Mausolus in Halicarnassus. Features of architecture appeared both in the size, grandeur of buildings, and in magnificence of a sculptural decor.
Hellenistic sculpture was dominated by a poetic style that corresponded to new features of architecture, achieving harmony with it. Along with the classic specimens, there is a gigantism and a miniature sculpture. A huge architectural monument was the altar of Zeus in Pergamum, built in the early second century. B.C.
Scenic marble frieze 120 m long depicted scenes of the struggle of the Olympic gods with the giants. It is no exaggeration to say that there has never been such a grand, expressive and expressive picture of battle in all ancient Greek sculpture. In a frozen form, the feeling of battle is dramatically conveyed not for life, but for death, where all cosmic forces, all demons of earth and sky take part.
The most famous monuments of pathetic monumentalism are the statue of the goddess Nike of Samothrace (the winged goddess of victory), which stood on a pedestal in the shape of the bow of the ship from which the goddess took off, and the sculptural group " Laocoon "by Agesandro, Polidor and Afinador.