It is consumed more than others by England, the United States, and Arab countries.

It is consumed more than others by England, the United States, and Arab countries.

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Ginger and ginger root. Abstract

General characteristics. Chemical composition. Medicinal properties. Taste qualities. Application

Ginger in Sanskrit means „horned“, which is probably due to the shape of the ginger root.

It became one of the first spices to reach the Mediterranean coast, and was known to the Chinese and Indians since ancient times.

The places where Ginger grew were kept secret by Arab merchants. They persuaded trusting foreigners that Ginger grows on the lands of troglodytes, who grow it somewhere far to the south, beyond the Red Sea, on the edge of the world, and guard it closely.

The range of distribution of Ginger was very large. Initially, the rhizome was used only in medicine.

It was used to combat aging, attributed to it the properties of increasing sex drive.

It is said that the Portuguese generously fed Ginger to their slaves to increase their fertility. But today Ginger is valued for its spicy taste.

The main producers of ginger are India and China. It is also grown in Japan, Vietnam, West Africa, Nigeria, Argentina, Brazil and Australia.

Chemical composition. Medicinal properties

Ginger rhizome contains essential oil 1-3%, which includes gingerol (1.5%), phenolic substances, resins, starch, sugar, fat.

Ginger is consumed to stimulate the stomach and intestines, with flatulence. It improves appetite.

Taste qualities. Application

Ginger rhizomes in various processing are used as a spice.

White and black Ginger is available for sale. Black is obtained by carefully treating the root in water with a brush. White Ginger requires additional treatment with 2% – a percentage solution of chlorinated lime or sulfuric acid for 6 hours after removal from the root of the upper skin. Ginger root is used to make beer extract and powder, which is mainly used in cooking.

This classic spice has long been used for baking gingerbread, rolls, rugs; in the preparation of beverages: kvass, mead, liqueurs, tinctures.

In England and the United States, beer is brewed with ginger extract, in Southeast Asia, candied ginger is used to make jams, candied fruits, candies, and marmalade.

Ginger is used in the preparation of compotes (especially pears), canning pumpkins, cucumbers.

It gives a delicate taste to soups, especially vegetable, fruit, poultry broths. It is added to some types of porridge. They flavor pate, homemade sausages, cheeses. It improves the taste of roasted pork, baked duck, vegetable stew, stuffed vegetables (peppers, tomatoes, eggplant, zucchini, cucumbers, etc.), mushroom dishes.

Ginger is used to obtain an alcoholic extract saturated with volatile aromatic essential oils and sharp resinous substances. Ginger is one of the components of the mixture „Curry“ is part of ketchup.

In industry, ginger is used to make bitter liqueurs and punches. It is consumed more than others by England, the United States, and Arab countries.

Bookmark rates: per serving – 0.2-0.5 g in meat dishes 20 minutes before cooking, 1 g per 1 kg of dough in the process of preparation, in sweet dishes – 0.3 g per serving 2-5 minutes before readiness, etc.


Application of biotechnology in crop production. Abstract

Cultivated plants suffer from weeds, rodents, pests, nematodes, phytopathogenic fungi, bacteria, viruses, adverse weather and climatic conditions. These factors, along with soil erosion and hail, significantly reduce the yield of agricultural plants

From ancient times, certain biotechnological processes are known, used in various areas of human activity. These include: baking, winemaking, preparation of dairy products, etc. However, the biological essence of these processes was clarified only in the XIX century, thanks to the work of L. Pasteur.

Biotechnology can be called the most fashionable industry of the last decade. The term „biotechnology“ was proposed in 1917 by Hungarian engineer Karl Ereki. Under biotechnology it was proposed to understand „all types of work in which from raw materials with the help of living organisms are produced certain products.“

Such a general definition is in principle applicable to any agricultural production, but in practice biotechnology was called industrial or close to industrial production, in which key operations were performed by living organisms. In the following decades, „biotechnological“ was called mainly production in which the main role was played by microorganisms – from industrial brewing to the production of antibiotics.

However, today this term has acquired a different meaning. „Biotechnology“ is usually called the industrial production of a product that directly uses molecular biological (and especially molecular genetic) processes. This technology is most widely used in agriculture, pharmaceuticals and medicine.

At the same time, the achievements of biotechnology are repeatedly becoming a source of public fear, the subject of debate and protest.

Probably in the entire history of industrial society there is no other industry that has caused such a polar attitude. „Living in GM world“ – under this heading in the Western press regularly appear reports of street demonstrations against the „food of Frankenstein“ – obtained through genetically modified plants or animals, the statements of the clergy that man in mad pride he assumes the role of God.

That transgenic microbes released into the wild will either devour all living things or cause diseases that … What transgenic people … What … And really, WHAT? What is true in these words, what about „honest“ ignorance, what about „proud“ ignorance, and what about deliberate untruths aimed at inflating circulations, raising ratings and suppressing competitors?

If we talk about the objective reason for such protests, it is that the projected economic and environmental benefits of large-scale use of genetically modified organisms are obvious, concrete and often expressed in billions of dollars. And fears that it could do harm are uncertain.

Is it possible to make a reasonable choice between a certain benefit and an uncertain danger? To denote organisms that carry foreign genes, the words are often used: genetically modified, recombinant, genetically engineered, which are generally synonymous.

Since the American company Monsanto created the first transgenic products in the late 1980s, controversy over the acceptability of their mass production and the possible negative consequences for health and the environment has not abated.

Proponents of the use of biotechnology in agriculture and the food industry argue that without mass production of GM products, humanity will simply starve to death, and opponents argue that solving the problem of food shortages with transgenes means changing one problem to another, perhaps much more … serious.

Cultivated plants suffer from weeds, rodents, pests, nematodes, phytopathogenic fungi, bacteria, viruses, adverse weather and climatic conditions. These factors, along with soil erosion and hail, significantly reduce the yield of agricultural plants.

It is known what devastating effects in potato growing causes the Colorado potato beetle, as well as the fungus Phytophtora – the causative agent of early rot (late blight) of potatoes. Corn is subject to the devastating „raids“ of southern leaf rot, the damage from which in the United States in 1970 was estimated at $ 1 billion.

In recent years, much attention has been paid to viral plant diseases. Along with diseases that leave visible traces on cultivated plants (mosaic disease of tobacco and cotton, winter disease of tomatoes), viruses cause latent infectious processes that significantly reduce crop yields and lead to their degeneration.

Biotechnological ways to protect plants from these harmful agents include:

derivation of plant varieties resistant to adverse factors; chemical agents (pesticides) against weeds (herbicides), rodents (raticides), insects (insecticides), nematodes (nematicides), phytopathogenic fungi (fungicides), bacteria, viruses; biological means of pest control, the use of their natural enemies and parasites, as well as toxic products formed by living organisms.

Along with plant protection, the task is to increase the productivity of crops, their nutritional (fodder) value, the task of creating varieties of plants growing on saline soils, in arid and wetlands. Developments are aimed at increasing the energy efficiency of various processes in plant tissues, ranging from the absorption of a quantum of light and ending with the assimilation of CO2 and water-salt metabolism.

Traditional approaches to breeding new plant varieties are selection based on hybridization, spontaneous and induced mutations.

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